Tree Fruit Soils and Nutrition



The 17 essential elements are: 

C H O P K N S Ca Fe Mg B Mn Cu Zn Mo Cl Ni

Manganese (Mn)

Form used by plants:


Important functions:

  • Enzyme activator (decarboxylase, dehydrogenase, and oxidase enzymes)

  • Assists iron in chlorophyll formation

  • Assimilates CO2 in photosynthesis

  • Essential for phosphorus and magnesium uptake

  • Prominent in chloroplast membrane (structure containing the high absorbing chlorophyll pigment and C-assimilating mechanisms)

  • Important in N metabolism and assimilation

Ideal foliage range for apple leaves:

25-100 ppm leaf dry weight

Ideal fruit concentration:

Ideal soil range:

> 1.5 ppm 

Deficiencies are most common on soils with pH . 7.0. Toxicities may occur on acid soils. 

Mn is relatively not mobile in soils.

Best indicators: 

Mobility in plant:

Not remobilized within plant

Deficiency symptoms:

Vegetation symptoms: interveinal chlorosis developing in older leaves first.  In severe cases, heavy defoliation may occur.  Rust spots or a mottled pattern may be an indication on some plants.

Increased risk of Mn deficiencies:

Availability of Mn decreases as pH increases (at soil pH 6.3, Mn becomes insoluble)

Excess problems/Interactions with other elements:

  • In acid soils, toxicity may occur especially on Delicious and Jonathan apples.  Signs may include chlorosis, early leaf abscission, reduced flower bud development, and internal bark necrosis.

  • Excess iron, copper, or zinc may reduce Mn absorption.

  • Excess sodium or potassium may adversely affect Mn uptake.

  • Excess Mn encourages iron deficiency.



Updated July 13, 2004


Contact us: 509-663-8181| Accessibility | Copyright | Policies
Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center, Washington State University,1100 N Western Ave., Wenatchee, WA, 98801 USA