Washington State University HomeWSU AdmissionsWSU CampusesWSU HomeWSU Search Toolsedge graphic



Soils and Plant Nutrition Home

Soil Properties

Tree Fruit Nutrition


  Essential Nutrients


Manganese (Mn)

Form used by plants:


Important functions:

  • Enzyme activator (decarboxylase, dehydrogenase, and oxidase enzymes)

  • Assists iron in chlorophyll formation

  • Assimilates CO2 in photosynthesis

  • Essential for phosphorus and magnesium uptake

  • Prominent in chloroplast membrane (structure containing the high absorbing chlorophyll pigment and C-assimilating mechanisms)

  • Important in N metabolism and assimilation

Ideal foliage range for apple leaves:

25-100 ppm leaf dry weight

Ideal fruit concentration:

Ideal soil range:

> 1.5 ppm 

Deficiencies are most common on soils with pH . 7.0. Toxicities may occur on acid soils. 

Mn is relatively not mobile in soils.

Best indicators: 

Top of page

Mobility in plant:

Not remobilized within plant

Deficiency symptoms:

Vegetation symptoms: interveinal chlorosis developing in older leaves first.  In severe cases, heavy defoliation may occur.  Rust spots or a mottled pattern may be an indication on some plants.

Increased risk of Mn deficiencies:

Availability of Mn decreases as pH increases (at soil pH 6.3, Mn becomes insoluble)

Excess problems/Interactions with other elements:

  • In acid soils, toxicity may occur especially on Delicious and Jonathan apples.  Signs may include chlorosis, early leaf abscission, reduced flower bud development, and internal bark necrosis.

  • Excess iron, copper, or zinc may reduce Mn absorption.

  • Excess sodium or potassium may adversely affect Mn uptake.

  • Excess Mn encourages iron deficiency.

Top of page

Last updated: 14 February, 2001


Washington State University - Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center
1100 N. Western Ave. * Wenatchee WA 98801
phone: 509-663-8181 * fax: 509-662-8714                                                                                                                                                                                     

Copyright Washington State University Disclaimer
WSU Electronic Publishing and Appropriate Use Policy

Pages maintained by
Jennifer Moore
Web problems to the
Webservant (Jerry Tangren)